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Knee

Normal Anatomy of the Knee Joint

How does the Knee joint work?

The knee is made up of four bones. The femur or thighbone is the bone connecting the hip to the knee. The tibia or shinbone connects the knee to the ankle. The patella (kneecap) is the small bone in front of the knee, and rides on the knee joint as the knee bends. The fibula is a shorter and thinner bone running parallel to the tibia on its outside. The joint acts like a hinge, but with some rotation.

Arthroscopy of the Knee Joint

Arthroscopy is a surgical procedure in which a tiny camera-mounted arthroscope is inserted into a joint. Arthroscopy is a term that comes from two Greek words, arthro-, meaning joint, and -skopein, meaning to examine.

The benefits of arthroscopy, compared with traditional surgery, involve smaller incisions, faster healing, a more rapid recovery, and less scarring. Arthroscopic surgical procedures are often performed on an outpatient basis, and the patient is able to return home on the same day.

Find out more about Knee Arthroscopy from the following links.

Total Knee Replacement (TKR)

A total knee replacement (TKR) or total knee arthroplasty is a surgery that resurfaces an arthritic knee joint with artificial metal or plastic replacement parts called prostheses.

Find out more about Total Knee Replacement with the following links.

Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Reconstruction

The anterior cruciate ligament is one of the major stabilizing ligaments in the knee. It is a strong rope-like structure located in the center of the knee, running from the femur to the tibia. When this ligament tears, unfortunately, it does not heal and often leads to the feeling of instability in the knee.

ACL reconstruction is a commonly performed surgical procedure, and with recent advances in arthroscopic surgery, it can now be performed with a small incision and low complication rates.

ACL Reconstruction Hamstring Tendon

ACL Reconstruction Patellar Tendon

Unicondylar Knee Replacement

This simply means that only a part of the knee joint is replaced through a smaller incision than would normally be used for a total knee replacement. The knee joint is made up of 3 compartments, the patellofemoral, medial, and lateral compartments between the femur and tibia, the long bones of the leg. Often only one of these compartments wears out, usually the medial one. If you have symptoms and X-ray readings indicating this condition, you may be a candidate for this procedure.

Find out more about Unicondylar knee replacement with the following links.

Revision Knee Replacement

This is a complete or a partial revision of your previous knee replacement. This operation may be needed, if the prosthesis from your original knee replacement has worn out.

Find out more about revision knee replacement with the following links.

Click on the topics below to find out more from the Orthopaedic connection website of American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.

  • duke-john-kelly
  • American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery
  • Orange County Medical Association